Introduction Sample & Hold Circuit is used to sample the given input signal and to hold the sampled value. Sample and hold circuit is used to sample an analog signal for a short interval

Introduction Lyapunov stability is often used to describe the state of being stable in a dynamical system. An equilibrium state x* of a dynamical system is Lyapunov stable if all trajectories of the system starting from

Phase Portrait A phase portrait is a geometric representation of the trajectories of a dynamic system in the phase plane. Every curve or point represents a set of initial conditions. Phase portraits are an

Introduction The describing function analysis is an approximate technique for studying non-linear systems. The basic idea of the method is to approximate the non-linear systems. The basic idea is of the method is to

Introduction A control system is a system of devices or set of devices, that manages, commands, directs or regulates the behavior of other device(s) or system(s) to achieve desire results. As the human civilization

What is a non-linearity? By definition, non- linear systems are those that do not follow the principle of superposition and homogeneity. Simply speaking, change in input is not proportional to the change in output.

Introduction Steady-state error is defined as the difference between the input (command) and the output of a system in the limit as time goes to infinity (i.e. when the response has reached steady state).

Introduction The Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion provides a simple algorithm to decide whether or not the zeros of a polynomial are all in the left half of the complex plane (such a polynomial is called

Introduction The concept of controllability refers to the ability of a controller to arbitrarily alter the functionality of the system plant. The term observability describes whether the internal state variables of the system can be externally measured. They are

Introduction State space analysis of control system is based on the modern theory which is applicable to all types of systems like single input single output systems, multiple inputs and multiple outputs systems, linear